Adaptability of prognostic prediction models for patients with acute coronary syndrome during the COVID-19 pandemic

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Background

The detrimental repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic on the quality of care and clinical outcomes for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) necessitate a rigorous re-evaluation of prognostic prediction models in the context of the pandemic environment. This study aimed to elucidate the adaptability of prediction models for 30-day mortality in patients with ACS during the pandemic periods.

Methods

A total of 2041 consecutive patients with ACS were included from 32 institutions between December 2020 and April 2023. The dataset comprised patients who were admitted for ACS and underwent coronary angiography for the diagnosis during hospitalisation. The prediction accuracy of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) and a machine learning model, KOTOMI, was evaluated for 30-day mortality in patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS).

Results

The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) was 0.85 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.89) in the GRACE and 0.87 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.91) in the KOTOMI for STEMI. The difference of 0.020 (95% CI –0.098–0.13) was not significant. For NSTE-ACS, the respective AUROCs were 0.82 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.91) in the GRACE and 0.83 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.91) in the KOTOMI, also demonstrating insignificant difference of 0.010 (95% CI –0.023 to 0.25). The prediction accuracy of both models had consistency in patients with STEMI and insignificant variation in patients with NSTE-ACS between the pandemic periods.

Conclusions

The prediction models maintained high accuracy for 30-day mortality of patients with ACS even in the pandemic periods, despite marginal variation observed.

Nishi, M., Nakamura, T., Yanishi, K., Matoba, S., AMI-Kyoto Multi-Center Risk Study Group

Nishi, M., Nakamura, T., Yanishi, K., Matoba, S., AMI-Kyoto Multi-Center Risk Study Group

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